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Primeur weekly 2017-11-13

Focus

Despite EuroHPC programme Europe losing ground in the TOP500 of the world's fastest supercomputers ...

Quantum computing

IBM announces advances to IBM quantum systems and ecosystem ...

Quantum computing on the move ...

Focus on Europe

Asetek announces Acer as new data centre OEM partner ...

It is time to clarify who funds what research in Europe, says Science Europe ...

European Commission officially releases European Open Science Cloud Declaration ...

The complete ISC 2018 contributed programme is now open for submission ...

PRACE to hold Summer of HPC 2017 Awards Ceremony at IT4Innovations ...

Atos revolutionizes enterprise AI with next generation servers ...

First modular supercomputer worldwide starts operation at the Research Center Jülich ...

Middleware

University of North Texas implements Bright Computing technology for efficient cluster management ...

Inspur launches ON5263M5, the world's first OCP-accepted compute node based on Intel Xeon Scalable processor family ...

Hardware

Oklahoma State University selects Advanced Clustering to build new HPC cluster ...

Cybermedia Center, Osaka University adopts Asetek liquid cooling for new computer system OCTOPUS ...

Solarflare showcases software defined Ethernet NICS for servers running on Qualcomm Centriq 2400 Arm-based processors ...

CoolIT Systems launches Rack DCLC AHx10 Heat Exchange Module ...

DDN partners with Hewlett Packard Enterprise to deliver unmatched HPC storage solutions ...

CoolIT Systems launches rack DCLC AHx2 Heat Exchange Module ...

DDN's massively scalable storage empowers Pawsey Supercomputing Centre to speed scientific discoveries that reveal the secrets of the universe ...

Fujitsu receives order for supercomputer system from the Institute of Fluid Science at Tohoku University ...

Fujitsu launches new PRIMEQUEST series and boosts processing performance by up to 50% ...

Cavium ThunderX2 motherboard specification for Microsoft's project Olympus contributed to the Open Compute Project ...

University of Michigan partners with Cavium on Big Data computing platform for University of Michigan researchers ...

Mellanox announces Innova-2 FPGA-based programmable adapter family to power next generation of Cloud, security, Big Data and Deep Learning platforms ...

Mellanox announces availability of world-leading Spectrum-based SN2010 data centre Ethernet switch system for storage and hyperconverged infrastructures ...

Mellanox interconnect solutions boost Qualcomm Arm-based data centre platforms with Mellanox ConnectX-5 ...

Mellanox announces world's most scalable switch platforms based on HDR 200G InfiniBand quantum switch technology ...

Atos to leverage Mellanox HDR InfiniBand for unmatched application performance and scalability ...

Mellanox InfiniBand to accelerate Japan's fastest supercomputer for Artificial Intelligence applications ...

Mellanox announces first major production deployment of Linux kernel-based Open Ethernet switch ...

LRZ puts into operation CoolMUC-3, a highly energy-efficient many-core cluster ...

WekaIO partners with Hewlett Packard Enterprise to develop all-flash storage for HPC and AI ...

CoolIT Systems showcases newest data centre liquid cooling innovations for OEM and enterprise customers at SC17 ...

Cray adds Arm-based ThunderX2 processors ito its Cray XC50 supercomputer ...

New Cray storage solutions address key customer needs for improved productivity and unparalleled data access ...

Supermicro unveils new HPC solutions at SC17 ...

Supermicro showcases industry's most advanced and optimized NVIDIA GPU systems at SC17 ...

NASA selects Supermicro to expand advanced computing and data analytics used to study the Earth, solar system and universe ...

Applications

New Cray Artificial Intelligence initiatives to advance Deep Learning for science and enterprise ...

Cosmos code helps probe space oddities ...

Research could 'untangle' vexing problem in computer-simulation technology ...

'Perfectly frustrated' metal provides possible path to superconductivity ...

DARPA awards Georgia Tech energy-efficient high-performance computing contract ...

Scientists create cosmic sounds of Voyager 1 ...

Need entangled atoms? Get 'Em FAST! with NIST's new patent-pending method ...

TOP500

China pulls ahead of U.S. in latest TOP500 list of the worlds' fastest supercomputers ...

TACC tech to shine at SC17 ...

The Cloud

Qualcomm Datacenter Technologies announces commercial shipment of Qualcomm Centriq 2400, the world's first 10nm server processor and highest performance Arm-based server processor family ever designed ...

Cosmos code helps probe space oddities

Shown here is a multi-physics simulation of an Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) jet colliding with and triggering star formation within an intergalactic gas cloud - red indicates jet material, blue is neutral Hydrogen (H I) gas, and green is cold, molecular Hydrogen (H 2) gas. Credit: Chris Fragile.7 Nov 2017 Austin - Black holes make for a great space mystery. They're so massive that nothing, not even light, can escape a black hole once it gets close enough. A great mystery for scientists is that there's evidence of powerful jets of electrons and protons that shoot out of the top and bottom of some black holes. Yet no one knows how these jets form.

Computer code called Cosmos now fuels supercomputer simulations of black hole jets and is starting to reveal the mysteries of black holes and other space oddities.

"Cosmos, the root of the name, came from the fact that the code was originally designed to do cosmology. It's morphed into doing a broad range of astrophysics", explained Chris Fragile, a professor in the Physics and Astronomy Department of the College of Charleston. Fragile helped develop the Cosmos code in 2005 while working as a post-doctoral researcher at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), along with Steven Murray (LLNL) and Peter Anninos (LLNL).

Chris Fragile pointed out that Cosmos provides astrophysicists an advantage because it has stayed at the forefront of general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). MHD simulations, the magnetism of electrically conducting fluids such as black hole jets, add a layer of understanding but are notoriously difficult for even the fastest supercomputers.

"The other area that Cosmos has always had some advantage in as well is that it has a lot of physics packages in it", continued Chris Fragile. "This was Peter Anninos' initial motivation, in that he wanted one computational tool where he could put in everything he had worked on over the years." Chris Fragile listed some of the packages that include chemistry, nuclear burning, Newtonian gravity, relativistic gravity, and even radiation and radiative cooling. "It's a fairly unique combination", Chris Fragile stated.

The current iteration of the code is CosmosDG, which utilizes discontinuous Gelarkin methods. "You take the physical domain that you want to simulate", explained Chris Fragile, "and you break it up into a bunch of little, tiny computational cells, or zones. You're basically solving the equations of fluid dynamics in each of those zones." CosmosDG has allowed much higher order of accuracy than ever before, according to results published in the Astrophysical Journal , August 2017.

"We were able to demonstrate that we achieved many orders of magnitude more accurate solutions in that same number of computational zones", stated Chris Fragile. "So, particularly in scenarios where you need very accurate solutions, CosmosDG may be a way to get that with less computational expense than we would have had to use with previous methods."

Since 2008, the Texas Advanced Computing Center (TACC) has provided computational resources for the development of the Cosmos code - about 6.5 million supercomputer core hours on the Ranger system and 3.6 million core hours on the Stampede system. XSEDE, the eXtreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment funded by the National Science Foundation, awarded Chris Fragile's group with the allocation.

"I can't praise enough how meaningful the XSEDE resources are", Chris Fragile stated. "The science that I do wouldn't be possible without resources like that. That's a scale of resources that certainly a small institution like mine could never support. The fact that we have these national-level resources enables a huge amount of science that just wouldn't get done otherwise."

And the fact is that busy scientists can sometimes use a hand with their code. In addition to access, XSEDE also provides a pool of experts through the Extended Collaborative Support Services (ECSS) effort to help researchers take full advantage of some of the world's most powerful supercomputers.

Chris Fragile has recently enlisted the help of XSEDE ECSS to optimize the CosmosDG code for Stampede2, a supercomputer capable of 18 petaflops and the flagship of TACC at The University of Texas at Austin. Stampede2 features 4,200 Knights Landing (KNL) nodes and 1,736 Intel Xeon Skylake nodes.

The many-core architecture of KNL presents new challenges for researchers trying to get the best compute performance, according to Damon McDougall, a research associate at TACC and also at the Institute for Computational Engineering and Sciences, UT Austin. Each Stampede2 KNL node has 68 cores, with four hardware threads per core. That's a lot of moving pieces to coordinate.

"This is a computer chip that has lots of cores compared to some of the other chips one might have interacted with on other systems", Damon McDougall explained. "More attention needs to be paid to the design of software to run effectively on those types of chips."

Through ECSS, Damon McDougall has helped Fragile optimize CosmosDG for Stampede2. "We promote a certain type of parallelism, called hybrid parallelism, where you might mix Message Passing Interface (MPI) protocols, which is a way of passing messages between compute nodes, and OpenMP, which is a way of communicating on a single compute node", Damon McDougall stated. "Mixing those two parallel paradigms is something that we encourage for these types of architectures. That's the type of advice we can help give and help scientists to implement on Stampede2 though the ECSS programme."

"By reducing how much communication you need to do", Chris Fragile stated, "that's one of the ideas of where the gains are going to come from on Stampede2. But it does mean a bit of work for legacy codes like ours that were not built to use OpenMP. We're having to retrofit our code to include some OpenMP calls. That's one of the things Damon has been helping us try to make this transition as smoothly as possible."

Damon McDougall described the ECSS work so far with CosmosDG as "very nascent and ongoing", with much initial work sleuthing memory allocation 'hot spots' where the code slows down.

"One of the things that Damon McDougall has really been helpful with is helping us make the codes more efficient and helping us use the XSEDE resources more efficiently so that we can do even more science with the level of resources that we're being provided", Chris Fragile added.

Some of the science Chris Fragile and colleagues have already done with the help of the Cosmos code has helped study accretion, the fall of molecular gases, and space debris into a black hole. Black hole accretion powers its jets. "One of the things I guess I'm most famous for is studying accretion disks where the disk is tilted", explained Chris Fragile.

Black holes spin. And so do the disk of gasses and debris that surrounds it and falls in. However, they spin on different axes of rotation. "We were the first people to study cases where the axis of rotation of the disk is not aligned with the axis of rotation of the black hole", Chris Fragile stated. General relativity shows that rotating bodies can exert a torque on other rotating bodies that aren't aligned with it.

Chris Fragile's simulations showed the black hole wobbles, a movement called precession, from the torque of the spinning accretion disk. "The really interesting thing is that over the last five years or so, observers - the people who actually use telescopes to study black hole systems - have seen evidence that the disks might actually be doing this precession that we first showed in our simulations", Chris Fragile stated.

Chris Fragile and colleagues use the Cosmos code to study other space oddities such as tidal disruption events, which happen when a molecular cloud or star passes close enough that a black hole shreds it. Other examples include Minkowski's Object, where Cosmos simulations support observations that a black hole jet collides with a molecular cloud to trigger star formation.

"We're living in a golden age of astronomy", Chris Fragile stated, referring to the wealth of knowledge generated from space telescopes like Hubble to the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope, to land-based telescopes such as Keck, and more.

Computing has helped support the success of astronomy, Chris Fragile said. "What we do in modern-day astronomy couldn't be done without computers", he concluded. "The simulations that I do are two-fold. They're to help us better understand the complex physics behind astrophysical phenomena. But they're also to help us interpret and predict observations that either have been, can be, or will be made in astronomy."

Source: University of Texas at Austin, Texas Advanced Computing Center - TACC

Back to Table of contents

Primeur weekly 2017-11-13

Focus

Despite EuroHPC programme Europe losing ground in the TOP500 of the world's fastest supercomputers ...

Quantum computing

IBM announces advances to IBM quantum systems and ecosystem ...

Quantum computing on the move ...

Focus on Europe

Asetek announces Acer as new data centre OEM partner ...

It is time to clarify who funds what research in Europe, says Science Europe ...

European Commission officially releases European Open Science Cloud Declaration ...

The complete ISC 2018 contributed programme is now open for submission ...

PRACE to hold Summer of HPC 2017 Awards Ceremony at IT4Innovations ...

Atos revolutionizes enterprise AI with next generation servers ...

First modular supercomputer worldwide starts operation at the Research Center Jülich ...

Middleware

University of North Texas implements Bright Computing technology for efficient cluster management ...

Inspur launches ON5263M5, the world's first OCP-accepted compute node based on Intel Xeon Scalable processor family ...

Hardware

Oklahoma State University selects Advanced Clustering to build new HPC cluster ...

Cybermedia Center, Osaka University adopts Asetek liquid cooling for new computer system OCTOPUS ...

Solarflare showcases software defined Ethernet NICS for servers running on Qualcomm Centriq 2400 Arm-based processors ...

CoolIT Systems launches Rack DCLC AHx10 Heat Exchange Module ...

DDN partners with Hewlett Packard Enterprise to deliver unmatched HPC storage solutions ...

CoolIT Systems launches rack DCLC AHx2 Heat Exchange Module ...

DDN's massively scalable storage empowers Pawsey Supercomputing Centre to speed scientific discoveries that reveal the secrets of the universe ...

Fujitsu receives order for supercomputer system from the Institute of Fluid Science at Tohoku University ...

Fujitsu launches new PRIMEQUEST series and boosts processing performance by up to 50% ...

Cavium ThunderX2 motherboard specification for Microsoft's project Olympus contributed to the Open Compute Project ...

University of Michigan partners with Cavium on Big Data computing platform for University of Michigan researchers ...

Mellanox announces Innova-2 FPGA-based programmable adapter family to power next generation of Cloud, security, Big Data and Deep Learning platforms ...

Mellanox announces availability of world-leading Spectrum-based SN2010 data centre Ethernet switch system for storage and hyperconverged infrastructures ...

Mellanox interconnect solutions boost Qualcomm Arm-based data centre platforms with Mellanox ConnectX-5 ...

Mellanox announces world's most scalable switch platforms based on HDR 200G InfiniBand quantum switch technology ...

Atos to leverage Mellanox HDR InfiniBand for unmatched application performance and scalability ...

Mellanox InfiniBand to accelerate Japan's fastest supercomputer for Artificial Intelligence applications ...

Mellanox announces first major production deployment of Linux kernel-based Open Ethernet switch ...

LRZ puts into operation CoolMUC-3, a highly energy-efficient many-core cluster ...

WekaIO partners with Hewlett Packard Enterprise to develop all-flash storage for HPC and AI ...

CoolIT Systems showcases newest data centre liquid cooling innovations for OEM and enterprise customers at SC17 ...

Cray adds Arm-based ThunderX2 processors ito its Cray XC50 supercomputer ...

New Cray storage solutions address key customer needs for improved productivity and unparalleled data access ...

Supermicro unveils new HPC solutions at SC17 ...

Supermicro showcases industry's most advanced and optimized NVIDIA GPU systems at SC17 ...

NASA selects Supermicro to expand advanced computing and data analytics used to study the Earth, solar system and universe ...

Applications

New Cray Artificial Intelligence initiatives to advance Deep Learning for science and enterprise ...

Cosmos code helps probe space oddities ...

Research could 'untangle' vexing problem in computer-simulation technology ...

'Perfectly frustrated' metal provides possible path to superconductivity ...

DARPA awards Georgia Tech energy-efficient high-performance computing contract ...

Scientists create cosmic sounds of Voyager 1 ...

Need entangled atoms? Get 'Em FAST! with NIST's new patent-pending method ...

TOP500

China pulls ahead of U.S. in latest TOP500 list of the worlds' fastest supercomputers ...

TACC tech to shine at SC17 ...

The Cloud

Qualcomm Datacenter Technologies announces commercial shipment of Qualcomm Centriq 2400, the world's first 10nm server processor and highest performance Arm-based server processor family ever designed ...