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Primeur weekly 2016-11-14

Exascale supercomputing

Berkeley Lab to lead AMR co-design centre for DOE's Exascale Computing Project ...

Exascale Computing Project announces $48 million to establish Exascale co-design centres ...

US Exascale Computing Project awards $34 million for software development ...

Quantum computing

Breakthrough in the quantum transfer of information between matter and light ...

Focus on Europe

European Commission reveals its forthcoming call for energy efficient, high performance processors ...

World-leading HPC centres partner to form accelerated computing institute ...

Atos Bull to boost Dutch research at SURFsara with first Bull sequana supercomputer installed ...

Middleware

Allinea tools yield a 50% speed up for genome applications at the Earlham Institute ...

NERSC's 'Shifter' scales up to more than 9,000 Cori KNL processors ...

DDN's Big Data storage provides Aalto University ample capacity and fast access to vital research data ...

DDN unveils industry's fastest multi-level security Lustre solution ...

DDN delivers new burst buffer appliance and updates block and file appliances, completing total product line refresh ...

Atos Bull tackles storage bottlenecks for High Performance Computing ...

Cycle Computing debuts the newest version of its groundbreaking CycleCloud ...

Hardware

University of Toronto selects CoolIT Systems to liquid cool signal processor for CHIME project ...

CoolIT Systems optimizes Trade and Match solution with custom closed-loop liquid cooling ...

SDSC to host high-speed, large data transfer experiment at SC16 Show ...

Cray XC40 "Theta" supercomputer accepted at Argonne National Laboratory ...

Cray launches next-generation supercomputer: the Cray XC50 ...

Cray reports third quarter 2016 financial results ...

Mellanox drives Virtual Reality to new levels with breakthrough performance ...

Mellanox announces 200Gb/s HDR InfiniBand solutions enabling record levels of performance and scalability ...

Computers made of genetic material? ...

CoolIT Systems to showcase best-in-class HPC liquid cooling offering at SC16 ...

Applications

BoschDoc, AHCODA-DB and OpenML winners of the Data Prize 2016 ...

Blue Waters simulates largest membrane channel made of DNA origami ...

Cray joins iEnergy, the oil and gas industry's foremost community for exploration and production ...

Large-scale computer simulations reveal biological growth processes ...

NASA science and technology advancements demonstrated at Supercomputing Conference ...

Unlocking big genetic datasets ...

Accelerating cancer research with deep learning ...

System opens up high-performance programming to non-experts ...

Studying structure to understand function within 'material families' ...

Chury is much younger than previously thought ...

TOP500

Global supercomputing capacity creeps up as Petascale systems blanket Top 100 ...

InfiniBand chosen by nearly 4x more end-users versus proprietary offerings in 2016 as shown on the TOP500 supercomputers list ...

The Cloud

SURFnet selects eight Cloud providers for Dutch education and research ...

Chury is much younger than previously thought


Chury with his bi-lobe structure and the weakest part, the neck. Credit: ESA/Rosetta/NAVCAM CC BY-SA IGO 3.0.
9 Nov 2016 Bern - Based on computer simulations, astrophysicists at the University of Bern, Switzerland, conclude that the comet Chury did not obtain its duck-like form during the formation of our solar system 4.5 billion years ago. Although it does contain primordial material, they are able to show that the comet in its present form is hardly more than a billion years old.

Based on data from the Rosetta space probe, scientists have so far assumed that the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko originated from the initial phase of our solar system. Its peculiar, duck-shaped structure would have resulted from a gentle collision of two objects about 4.5 billion years ago.

Based on new research, Martin Jutzi and Willy Benz from NCCR PlanetS and the Center for Space and Habitability (CSH) of the University of Bern, together with colleagues, have now come to a different conclusion. As a result of two studies published in the specialist journalAstronomy & Astrophysics, astrophysicist Martin Jutzi explained: "It is unlikely that a body like Chury has survived for such a long time without damage - our computer simulations show this."

If the assumptions of the present "standard" model of the origin of our solar system are correct, a quiet initial phase was followed by a period in which large bodies initiated higher velocities and more violent collisions. In a first study, the scientists calculated how much energy would be needed to destroy a structure like Chury in a collision. As it turned out, Chury has a weak point; the connection between the two parts - the neck between the head and the body. "We have found that this structure can be destroyed easily, even with low energy collisions", Martin Jutzi summarized. Willy Benz compares the neck of the comet with the stem of a glass: "A dishwasher has to clean very gently, so that the stem of the glass does not break", stated the astrophysicist. Obviously, the solar system did not handle this aspect as carefully.

The new study shows that comets like Chury experienced a significant number of collisions over time, the energy of which would have been sufficient to destroy a bi-lobe structure. Therefore, the shape is not primordial, but has developed through collisions over billions of years. "Chury's present shape is the result of the last major impact which probably occurred within the last billion years", stated Martin Jutzi. The duck-shaped Chury is therefore much younger than previously thought. The only alternative would be that the current standard model of the early evolution of the solar system is not correct and there were fewer small objects than previously thought. In this case there would not have been as many collisions and Chury would have had the chance to keep its primordial shape. "At the moment, we do think though that Chury's shape is the result of many collisions, and that the standard model doesn't need to be revised", stated Martin Jutzi.

In the second paper, Martin Jutzi and Willy Benz investigate exactly how Chury's current form could have resulted from a collision. In their computer models, they had small objects with a diameter of 200 to 400 meters crashing into a roughly five-kilometre, rotating body in the form of a rugby ball. The impact speed was in the range of 200 to 300 meters per second, which clearly exceeds the escape velocity for objects of this size (about 1 meter per second). However, the energy involved is still far below that of a catastrophic impact in which a large part of the body is pulverized. As a result, the target was torn in two parts, which, due to the effects of their mutual gravitational force, later merged into a structure with two parts - a structure like Chury.

Does the result of this research contradict previous knowledge that comets consist of primordial material at least as old as our solar system? "No", the researchers stated. Their computer simulations show that the relatively small impact energy does not heat or compress the comet globally. The body is still porous and the volatile material which was contained in it since the beginning is retained. In connection with Chury, these properties could be measured convincingly with the space probe Rosetta. "So far, it has been assumed that comets are original building blocks - similar to Lego", stated Willy Benz. "Our work shows that the Lego blocks no longer have their original form, but the plastic that they consist of is still the same as in the beginning."

The two studies are titled:

Source: University of Bern

Back to Table of contents

Primeur weekly 2016-11-14

Exascale supercomputing

Berkeley Lab to lead AMR co-design centre for DOE's Exascale Computing Project ...

Exascale Computing Project announces $48 million to establish Exascale co-design centres ...

US Exascale Computing Project awards $34 million for software development ...

Quantum computing

Breakthrough in the quantum transfer of information between matter and light ...

Focus on Europe

European Commission reveals its forthcoming call for energy efficient, high performance processors ...

World-leading HPC centres partner to form accelerated computing institute ...

Atos Bull to boost Dutch research at SURFsara with first Bull sequana supercomputer installed ...

Middleware

Allinea tools yield a 50% speed up for genome applications at the Earlham Institute ...

NERSC's 'Shifter' scales up to more than 9,000 Cori KNL processors ...

DDN's Big Data storage provides Aalto University ample capacity and fast access to vital research data ...

DDN unveils industry's fastest multi-level security Lustre solution ...

DDN delivers new burst buffer appliance and updates block and file appliances, completing total product line refresh ...

Atos Bull tackles storage bottlenecks for High Performance Computing ...

Cycle Computing debuts the newest version of its groundbreaking CycleCloud ...

Hardware

University of Toronto selects CoolIT Systems to liquid cool signal processor for CHIME project ...

CoolIT Systems optimizes Trade and Match solution with custom closed-loop liquid cooling ...

SDSC to host high-speed, large data transfer experiment at SC16 Show ...

Cray XC40 "Theta" supercomputer accepted at Argonne National Laboratory ...

Cray launches next-generation supercomputer: the Cray XC50 ...

Cray reports third quarter 2016 financial results ...

Mellanox drives Virtual Reality to new levels with breakthrough performance ...

Mellanox announces 200Gb/s HDR InfiniBand solutions enabling record levels of performance and scalability ...

Computers made of genetic material? ...

CoolIT Systems to showcase best-in-class HPC liquid cooling offering at SC16 ...

Applications

BoschDoc, AHCODA-DB and OpenML winners of the Data Prize 2016 ...

Blue Waters simulates largest membrane channel made of DNA origami ...

Cray joins iEnergy, the oil and gas industry's foremost community for exploration and production ...

Large-scale computer simulations reveal biological growth processes ...

NASA science and technology advancements demonstrated at Supercomputing Conference ...

Unlocking big genetic datasets ...

Accelerating cancer research with deep learning ...

System opens up high-performance programming to non-experts ...

Studying structure to understand function within 'material families' ...

Chury is much younger than previously thought ...

TOP500

Global supercomputing capacity creeps up as Petascale systems blanket Top 100 ...

InfiniBand chosen by nearly 4x more end-users versus proprietary offerings in 2016 as shown on the TOP500 supercomputers list ...

The Cloud

SURFnet selects eight Cloud providers for Dutch education and research ...