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Primeur weekly 2012-08-20

The Cloud

ISC Cloud'12 keynote session to investigate Helix Nebula, Europe's Science Cloud ...

HP delivers innovations to power Cloud computing ...

Numira Biosciences and Penguin Computing to bring advanced graphics processing to the Cloud for pre-clinical imaging ...

OpenStack technology preview available from Red Hat ...

Tata Consultancy Services to enhance high performance application and Cloud offerings; acquires Pune-based start-up CRL ...

EuroFlash

LHC experiments bring new insight into matter of the primordial Universe ...

IBM scientists waltz closer to using spintronics in computing ...

Electronic read-out of quantum bits ...

Supercomputers solve riddle of congenital heart defects ...

HPC Advisory Council and the International Supercomputing Conference announce Call for Submissions for HPCAC-ISC 2013 Student Cluster Challenge ...

Major step taken towards 'unbreakable' message exchange ...

USFlash

Cray to add NVIDIA Kepler GPUs to its next-generation "Cascade" supercomputer ...

Fujitsu to supply new supercomputer system to the University of Tokyo's Institute for Solid State Physics ...

Educational institutions improve aging legacy networks with HP ...

IBM plans to acquire Texas Memory Systems ...

Victor Chandler betting on SAS ...

Skyera set to dramatically change enterprise Flash adoption landscape ...

HydroShare aims to help scientists collaborate on water-related problems ...

Acceleware updates RTM featuring enhanced imaging and NVIDIA Kepler support ...

New Research Points to Advances in Quantum Computing ...

LHC experiments bring new insight into matter of the primordial Universe

13 Aug 2012 Geneva - Experiments using heavy ions at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are advancing understanding of the primordial Universe. The ALICE, ATLAS and CMS collaborations have made new measurements of the kind of matter that probably existed in the first instants of the Universe. They have presented their latest results at the 2012 Quark Matter conference, held in Washington DC. The new findings are based mainly on the four-week LHC run with lead ions in 2011, during which the experiments collected 20 times more data than in 2010.

Just after the Big Bang, quarks and gluons - basic building blocks of matter - were not confined inside composite particles such as protons and neutrons, as they are today. Instead, they moved freely in a state of matter known as 'quark–gluon plasma'. Collisions of lead ions in the LHC, the world's most powerful particle accelerator, recreate for a fleeting moment conditions similar to those of the early Universe. By examining a billion or so of these collisions, the experiments have been able to make more precise measurements of the properties of matter under these extreme conditions.

"The field of heavy-ion physics is crucial for probing the properties of matter in the primordial Universe, one of the key questions of fundamental physics that the LHC and its experiments are designed to address. It illustrates how in addition to the investigation of the recently discovered Higgs-like boson, physicists at the LHC are studying many other important phenomena in both proton–proton and lead–lead collisions", stated CERN Director General Rolf Heuer.

At the conference, the ALICE, ATLAS and CMS collaborations have presented more refined characterizations of the densest and hottest matter ever studied in the laboratory - 100,000 times hotter than the interior of the Sun and denser than a neutron star.

ALICE has presented a wealth of new results on all aspects of the evolution in both space and time of high-density strongly interacting matter. Important studies deal with "charmed particles", which contain a charm or anti-charm quark. Charm quarks, 100 times heavier than the up and down quarks that form normal matter, are significantly decelerated by their passage through quark–gluon plasma, offering scientists a unique tool to probe its properties. ALICE physicists have reported indications that the flow in the plasma is so strong that the heavy charmed particles are dragged along by it. The experiment has also observed indications of a thermalization phenomenon, which involves the recombination of charm and anti-charm quarks to form "charmonium".

"This is only one leading example of the scientific opportunities in reach of the ALICE experiment", stated Paolo Giubellino, spokesperson of the ALICE collaboration. "With more data still being analysed and further data-taking scheduled for next February, we are closer than ever to unravelling the properties of the primordial state of the Universe: the quark–gluon plasma."

In the 1980s, the initial dissociation of charmonium was proposed as a direct signature for the formation of quark–gluon plasma, and first experimental indications of this dissociation were reported from fixed-target experiments at CERN's Super Proton Synchrotron in 2000. The much higher energy of the LHC makes it possible for the first time to study similar tightly-bound states of the heavier beauty quarks. The hypothesis was that, depending on their binding energy, some of these states would "melt" in the plasma produced, while others would survive the extreme temperature. The CMS experiment now observes clear signs of the expected sequential suppression of the "quarkonium" (quark–antiquark) states.

"CMS will present important new heavy-ion results not only on quarkonium suppression, but also on bulk properties of the medium and on a variety of studies of jet quenching", stated Joseph Incandela, the CMS Spokesperson. "We are entering an exciting new era of high-precision research on strongly interacting matter at the highest energies produced in the laboratory."

The quenching of jets is the phenomenon in which highly energetic sprays of particles break up in the dense quark–gluon plasma, giving scientists detailed information about the density and properties of the produced matter. ATLAS has reported new findings on jet quenching, including a high-precision study of how the jets fragment in matter, and on the correlations between jets and electroweak bosons. The results are complementary to other exciting ones, including groundbreaking findings on the flow of the plasma.

"We have entered a new phase in which we not only observe the phenomenon of quark–gluon plasma, but where we can also make high-precision measurements using a variety of probes", stated Fabiola Gianotti, the ATLAS spokesperson. "The studies will contribute significantly to our understanding of the early Universe."
Source: CERN

Back to Table of contents

Primeur weekly 2012-08-20

The Cloud

ISC Cloud'12 keynote session to investigate Helix Nebula, Europe's Science Cloud ...

HP delivers innovations to power Cloud computing ...

Numira Biosciences and Penguin Computing to bring advanced graphics processing to the Cloud for pre-clinical imaging ...

OpenStack technology preview available from Red Hat ...

Tata Consultancy Services to enhance high performance application and Cloud offerings; acquires Pune-based start-up CRL ...

EuroFlash

LHC experiments bring new insight into matter of the primordial Universe ...

IBM scientists waltz closer to using spintronics in computing ...

Electronic read-out of quantum bits ...

Supercomputers solve riddle of congenital heart defects ...

HPC Advisory Council and the International Supercomputing Conference announce Call for Submissions for HPCAC-ISC 2013 Student Cluster Challenge ...

Major step taken towards 'unbreakable' message exchange ...

USFlash

Cray to add NVIDIA Kepler GPUs to its next-generation "Cascade" supercomputer ...

Fujitsu to supply new supercomputer system to the University of Tokyo's Institute for Solid State Physics ...

Educational institutions improve aging legacy networks with HP ...

IBM plans to acquire Texas Memory Systems ...

Victor Chandler betting on SAS ...

Skyera set to dramatically change enterprise Flash adoption landscape ...

HydroShare aims to help scientists collaborate on water-related problems ...

Acceleware updates RTM featuring enhanced imaging and NVIDIA Kepler support ...

New Research Points to Advances in Quantum Computing ...