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Primeur weekly 2019-07-15

Quantum computing

Quantum chemistry on quantum computers ...

Quantum computing: Forschungszentrum Jülich and Google announce research partnership ...

The best of both worlds: how to solve real problems on modern quantum computers ...

Rigetti Computing acquires QxBranch to expand full-stack capabilities ...

Focus on Europe

Pioneer satellites launched ...

Inauguration of the Minho Advanced Computing Centre - MACC - in Portugal ...

e-InfraCentral reports on successful EOSC community event in Tallinn ...

ISC High Performance announces David Keyes as 2020 Programme Chair ...

GCS Centres converge on Frankfurt for ISC19 ...

Gauss Centre for Supercomputing to open 22nd call for large-scale projects ...

Middleware

Argonne team breaks record for Globus Data Movement ...

Hardware

Verne Global joins NVIDIA DGX-Ready Data Center Programme as HPC & AI colocation partner ...

NSF funds Bridges-2 supercomputer at Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center ...

Mellanox Capital extends storage ecosystem with investments in CNEX Labs and Pliops ...

Ohio Supercomputer Center staff leading programmes at PEARC19 conference ...

Tachyum closes $25 million Series A round ...

Vantage Data Centers joins NVIDIA DGX-Ready Data Center Colocation Programme ...

World-class research centre opens in Palo Alto ...

Intel's Pohoiki Beach, a 64-chip neuromorphic system, delivers breakthrough results in research tests ...

Applications

SDSC's Comet supercomputer used to model graphene-water interaction ...

US Naval Research Laboratory 'connects the dots' for quantum networks ...

Deep learning-powered 'DeepEC' helps accurately understand enzyme functions ...

Targeting new treatments for concussions by transforming brain pathology ...

NERSC's Cori system reveals integral role of gluons in proton pressure distribution ...

CMU scientists use XSEDE-allocated resources to simulate improved battery components ...

AI Excellence in Europe: 50 million euro to bring world-class researchers together ...

The Cloud

IBM closes landmark acquisition of Red Hat for $34 billion and defines open, hybrid Cloud future ...

USFlash

Intel unveils new tools in its advanced chip packaging toolbox ...

NERSC's Cori system reveals integral role of gluons in proton pressure distribution


8 Jul 2019 Berkeley - Scientists know that extreme pressure exists inside a proton - pressure far stronger than even that inside a neutron star. However, until recently, they haven't understood much about pressure distribution inside the proton. For the first time, lattice quantum chromodynamics (LQCD) calculations run at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) allowed nuclear physicists from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to determine the pressure distribution inside a proton, taking into account the contributions of the proton's fundamental particles: quarks and gluons. This discovery brings nuclear scientists closer to a complete understanding of a proton's structure and the fundamental particles that make up most of the visible matter in the universe.

The results of this research, published earlier this year in Physical Review Letters and featured on the journal cover, show that gluons are integral to the pressure distribution inside the proton, revealing that the gluon contribution is actually larger than and quite different from that of the quark. The researchers combined their LQCD results for the gluon contributions with earlier calculations of the quark contributions to determine fundamental aspects of the proton pressure distribution.

These results showed two distinct regions of the pressure distribution: near the centre of the proton there is a repulsive pressure, and near the exterior of the proton there is a confining pressure. The proton needs this positive/negative structure to maintain its stability. These calculations showed that gluons had a higher probability of being further from the center of the proton than quarks do.

Quarks and gluons are the fundamental particles that form the complex structure of the proton, but until now scientists have been able to discern much more about quarks than gluons. Since quarks carry an electric charge, they can be studied using electron scattering experiments. Gluons don't carry electric charge and have been much more difficult to research. However, plans for a new type of accelerator, an electron ion collider, would allow the gluonic structure of protons to be probed in much greater depth.

"The role of gluons was essentially unknown prior to this research", stated Phiala Shanahan, a MIT assistant professor who co-led the research. "It's particularly interesting because this is something that may be able to be measured within the next 10-15 years with the likely construction of an electron ion collider."

For now, scientists rely on LQCD and high performance computing to study these aspects of research on proton structure. LQCD calculations create snapshots of what the quarks and gluons are doing inside a proton. From those snapshots, researchers are then able to extract the physics they're seeking. "The task of creating those snapshots is a very computationally demanding one", stated William Detmold, an associate professor at MIT who co-led this research. "What we are calculating is what an observer would see if they jumped inside a proton."

NERSC's Cori supercomputer was instrumental to this research. "It was a massive, large-scale computational task, both in terms of simulation and data analysis", stated Phiala Shanahan. "Our calculations need to run on many nodes at once; it would not have been possible to do these calculations using smaller resources."

There are still a number of systematic uncertainties that have not been estimated, the most significant being that we did these calculations with heavier quarks than in nature so that the required computational resources could be reduced, he added. "We have theoretical reasons to expect that this will be a small systematic effect, but actually doing the calculations with the physical values of the quark masses is the next step, which will require more computational power."

NERSC is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science user facility. This work was supported by the DOE Office of Science and the National Science Foundation.
Source: National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center - NERSC

Back to Table of contents

Primeur weekly 2019-07-15

Quantum computing

Quantum chemistry on quantum computers ...

Quantum computing: Forschungszentrum Jülich and Google announce research partnership ...

The best of both worlds: how to solve real problems on modern quantum computers ...

Rigetti Computing acquires QxBranch to expand full-stack capabilities ...

Focus on Europe

Pioneer satellites launched ...

Inauguration of the Minho Advanced Computing Centre - MACC - in Portugal ...

e-InfraCentral reports on successful EOSC community event in Tallinn ...

ISC High Performance announces David Keyes as 2020 Programme Chair ...

GCS Centres converge on Frankfurt for ISC19 ...

Gauss Centre for Supercomputing to open 22nd call for large-scale projects ...

Middleware

Argonne team breaks record for Globus Data Movement ...

Hardware

Verne Global joins NVIDIA DGX-Ready Data Center Programme as HPC & AI colocation partner ...

NSF funds Bridges-2 supercomputer at Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center ...

Mellanox Capital extends storage ecosystem with investments in CNEX Labs and Pliops ...

Ohio Supercomputer Center staff leading programmes at PEARC19 conference ...

Tachyum closes $25 million Series A round ...

Vantage Data Centers joins NVIDIA DGX-Ready Data Center Colocation Programme ...

World-class research centre opens in Palo Alto ...

Intel's Pohoiki Beach, a 64-chip neuromorphic system, delivers breakthrough results in research tests ...

Applications

SDSC's Comet supercomputer used to model graphene-water interaction ...

US Naval Research Laboratory 'connects the dots' for quantum networks ...

Deep learning-powered 'DeepEC' helps accurately understand enzyme functions ...

Targeting new treatments for concussions by transforming brain pathology ...

NERSC's Cori system reveals integral role of gluons in proton pressure distribution ...

CMU scientists use XSEDE-allocated resources to simulate improved battery components ...

AI Excellence in Europe: 50 million euro to bring world-class researchers together ...

The Cloud

IBM closes landmark acquisition of Red Hat for $34 billion and defines open, hybrid Cloud future ...

USFlash

Intel unveils new tools in its advanced chip packaging toolbox ...