"Cosmology has become a precision science driven by new data. We are exploiting the Planck satellite data of the cosmic microwave sky, as well as billion galaxy surveys, to better understand our place in the universe", stated Professor Stephen Hawking, Principal Investigator for the UK's COSMOS Consortium. "Without supercomputers like COSMOS, we would not be able to reach out and make contact between theory and the real universe to test whether our ideas are right."
While physicists must harness the power of HPC, they don't want to get bogged down in the technical details. Which is why the COSMOS consortium, Europe's leading group of cosmology investigators brought together by Stephen Hawking, has entered into collaboration with Allinea Software. They are bringing Allinea DDT and Allinea MAP to COSMOS_IX, one of the world's largest shared-memory supercomputers and the world's first symmetric multiprocessing system to be boosted by Intel Xeon Phi coprocessors. With COSMOS_IX being a part of the DiRAC - the UK's integrated supercomputing facility for theoretical modelling and HPC-based research - many researchers in particle physics, astronomy and cosmology will get access to the powerful Allinea Software tools.
Allinea DDT and Allinea MAP will help the consortium adapt its codes to the new architectures.
"Parallel programming is essential when exploring big science challenges. Intel Xeon Phi coprocessors offer a highly parallel capability without losing the familiar languages, models, and tools that software developers rely on", stated James Reinders, Director and Parallel Programming Evangelist, Intel Corporation.
"Allinea DDT and Allinea MAP fit this philosophy by offering profiling and debugging power in a unified, simple interface across Intel Xeon processors and Intel Xeon Phi coprocessors. This ease-of-use is a significant benefit for scientists who need to harness parallel programming but focus on their science."
COSMOS System Administrator Andrey Kaliazin agreed, adding that science is very much like business these days with scientists facing ongoing deadline pressure to produce results for academic conferences and funding bodies.
"Cosmology is extremely competitive with a lot of groups working on related projects so it is important to keep up and have an edge; and where everything depends on numerical simulations, you have to have your code valid, consistent and fast to get the results when you need them."
COSMOS parallel programmer James Briggs has been using Allinea DDT to help adapt CAMB - a complex code used to analyze data from the NASA WMAP and ESA Planck satellites - for the Intel Xeon Phi architecture. Planck, successor to WMAP, was Europe's first space mission to study relic radiation from the Big Bang. Since 1992, scientists have been using small temperature fluctuations in this radiation to understand the origin of the Universe and the formation of galaxies.
"Allinea DDT is so clear. It gave a lot of insights which helped James move forward", stated Andrey Kaliazin. "It gives you an overview and helps you look into things you wouldn't expect to think of and look at."
The consortium is focused on using the Intel Xeon Phi coprocessors in offload mode, where bits of the code that are highly parallel are executed on the co-processors. James Briggs said Allinea DDT could be particularly crucial to assist with the complex dance of data as it moves back and forth from the coprocessors to the main memory.
"We need to follow up with how the variables are updated on the coprocessors and the main processors. This is hard to do manually so this is where Allinea DDT will come into play."
Another huge challenge for the consortium, and indeed all cosmologists, is the existence of legacy codes written in Fortran and C that are in various stages of parallelization.
Andrey Kaliazin said the consortium anticipates using Allinea MAP in combination with Allinea DDT to update these codes.
"Bringing these two tools under one hood creates a clear advantage for us", he stated. "We could run Allinea MAP to see where the bottlenecks are, then attack that particular part of the code to parallelize it, while keeping it bug-free with Allinea DDT, then run it through the profiler again, and go in a circle until we get the whole thing parallelized as much as possible."
"For Allinea Software, we see an opportunity to gain insight into the key software development challenges of performance optimization and debugging experienced by real power-users as they offload core parts of their substantial and complex shared memory codes onto the Intel Xeon Phi coprocessors", stated Mark O'Connor, VP Product Management at Allinea Software.
Jacques Philouze, Allinea Software VP of EMEA Sales. added: "The Allinea Software tools will benefit from sharing knowledge and experience with this group of visionary scientists. We'll continue to improve our product in a real production environment - whilst we help the COSMOS Consortium achieve results that are out of this world."