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Primeur weekly 2020-06-29

Quantum computing

Atos takes the most powerful quantum simulator in the world to the next level with Atos QLM E ...

New model helps to describe defects and errors in quantum computers ...

Research and Markets to issue 2020 Revenue Assessment for Post-Quantum Cryptography (PQC) report ...

Focus on Europe

Iceland joined the LUMI consortium ...

LRZ to deploy HPE's Cray CS500 system to bring innovative architecture to the science of its users ...

Outcome of the e-IRG Webinar Series organized in the framework of the Croatian EU Presidency on 25-26 May 2020: Grand challenges of e-infrastructures within the new ERA ...

Spring 2020 edition of the e-IRG Magazine available ...

MareNostrum will generate a language model in Spanish based on millions of digital contents from the National Library of Spain ...

A team of bioengineering and computing experts outlines how the creation of text mining and Artificial Intelligence tools could advance biomaterials research and development ...

Barcelona Supercomputing Center releases OmpSs-2 version 2020.06 ...

Barcelona Supercomputing Center releases COMPSs version 2.7 ...

Ghent University engages Atos to build third Tier1 VSC supercomputer supporting research in Flanders ...

Dell Technologies high performance computing customers drive breakthroughs for global impact ...

Hardware

NCSA and Southern Methodist University announce new strategic partnership ...

TYAN brings the latest server advancements at its 2020 Server Solutions Online Exhibition ...

WekaIO awarded a patent for Flash Registry with Write Leveling ...

Western Digital's New NVMe SSDs and NVMe-oF solutions provide the foundation for next-generation, agile data infrastructures ...

CW-WDM MSA Group forms to drive new industry standard for optical laser sources ...

Battelle awarded contract to enable Arctic research ...

Applications

Project to calculate emissions reductions across Europe during the COVID-19 pandemic ...

Supercomputer simulations show how DNA prepares itself for repair ...

Georgia Tech engineers simulate solar cell work using supercomputers ...

A new way of designing global satellite missions ...

Process for 'two-faced' nanomaterials may aid energy, information tech ...

New transatlantic lab decodes the brain with AI ...

Ion conducting polymer crucial to improving neuromorphic devices ...

Scientists develop new tool to design better fusion devices ...

C3.ai Digital Transformation Institute announces COVID-19 awards ...

UCF Consortium announces OpenSNAPI project to develop an open, standard application programming interface for smart networking adapters ...

The Cloud

SDSC's Sherlock Cloud announces Skylab ...

Dell Technologies brings IT infrastructure and Cloud capabilities to Edge environments ...

New technique may enable all-optical data-centre networks ...

Schrödinger expands discovery efforts for COVID-19 Alliance with advanced molecular simulation leveraging high-powered parallel computing on Google Cloud ...

Nebulon emerges from stealth and announces Cloud-Defined Storage ...

Repertoire Immune Medicines receives funding from COVID-19 High Performance Computing Consortium ...

W3BCLOUD raises $20,5 million to roll out a network of data centres dedicated for the blockchain economy ...

New model helps to describe defects and errors in quantum computers


At the point at which the energy landscape splits, the high symmetry chain decays into a lower symmetry state when the critical point is passed. In this case, a straight chain decays into a zig-zag configuration when the anisotropy \lambda(t) passes a critical value \lambda_{c}. Where two consecutive ions fall onto the same side, a state of higher energy locally, we observe a defect. Credit: Fernando Gomez-Ruiz - Donostia International Physics Center.
24 Jun 2020 Groningen - A summer internship in Bilbao, Spain, has led to a paper in the journalPhysical Review Lettersfor Jack Mayo, a Master's student at the University of Groningen, the Netherlands. He has helped to create a universal model that can predict the number distribution of topological defects in non-equilibrium systems. The results can be applied to quantum computing and to studies into the origin of structure in the early Universe.

Jack Mayo, student of the Top Master Programme in Nanoscience at the Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials at the University of Groningen, spent his 2019 summer holidays on the Basque coast immersed in theoretical physics. The project in which he participated took place in the research group led by Professor Adolfo del Campo at the Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), and was aimed at solving a problem in quantum computing - but it has much wider implications, from nanoscale magnets to the cosmos. In all these systems, the onset of order - for example, order induced by cooling - is almost always accompanied by the development of defects. "Take a system in which particles have a magnetic moment that can flip between up and down", Jack Mayo explained. "If you increase their attractive interaction, they will start to align with each other."

This alignment will begin at certain uncorrelated points in a medium and then grow - like ice crystals in water. The alignment of each domain - up or down in the example of the magnetic moments - is a matter of chance. "Local alignments will grow outwards and at a certain stage, domains will begin to meet and interact", stated Jack Mayo. For example, if an up-domain meets a down-domain, the result will be a domain wall at their interface - a symmetry-breaking defect in the ordered structure, leaving behind an artifact of the material in its higher-symmetry phase.

This annealing of a medium is described by the Kibble-Zurek mechanism, originally designed to explain how a phase transition resulted in ordered structures in the early Universe. It was subsequently discovered that it could be used to describe the transition of liquid helium from a fluid to a superfluid phase. "The mechanism is universal and is also used in quantum computing based on quantum annealing", explained Jack Mayo. This technology is already on the market and is capable of solving complex puzzles such as the travelling salesman problem. However, a problem with this type of work is that defects that occur during the annealing process will distort the results.

The number of defects that show up in quantum annealing depends on the time taken to pass the phase transition. "If you have millions of years to slowly change the interactions between units, you do not get defects, but that is not very practical", Jack Mayo remarked. The trick is in designing finite-time - and therefore more practical - schedules to obtain an acceptable number of defects with high probability. The research project in which he participated was aimed at creating a model that could estimate the number of defects and guide the optimum design of these systems.

To do this, the physicists used theoretical tools to describe phase transitions and numerical simulations to estimate the defect distribution during cooling. As each domain can have one of two values - up or down in the example of the magnetic moments, they could estimate the chances of two opposite domains meeting and creating a defect. This led to a statistical model based on binomial distribution, which could be used to predict how a system should be cooled to create the smallest number of defects. The model was verified against independent numerical simulations and appeared to work well. This new model was described in a paper that was published on 17 June inPhysical Review Lettersand was accompanied by a 'Viewpoint' published inPhysics, a comment on the results by the independent physicist Professor Smitha Vishveshwara from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

Fernando J. Gómez-Ruiz, Jack J. Mayo, and Adolfo del Campo are the authors of the paper titled " Full Counting Statistics of Topological Defects after Crossing a Phase Transition ", published inPhysical Review Letterson 17 June 2020.
Source: University of Groningen

Back to Table of contents

Primeur weekly 2020-06-29

Quantum computing

Atos takes the most powerful quantum simulator in the world to the next level with Atos QLM E ...

New model helps to describe defects and errors in quantum computers ...

Research and Markets to issue 2020 Revenue Assessment for Post-Quantum Cryptography (PQC) report ...

Focus on Europe

Iceland joined the LUMI consortium ...

LRZ to deploy HPE's Cray CS500 system to bring innovative architecture to the science of its users ...

Outcome of the e-IRG Webinar Series organized in the framework of the Croatian EU Presidency on 25-26 May 2020: Grand challenges of e-infrastructures within the new ERA ...

Spring 2020 edition of the e-IRG Magazine available ...

MareNostrum will generate a language model in Spanish based on millions of digital contents from the National Library of Spain ...

A team of bioengineering and computing experts outlines how the creation of text mining and Artificial Intelligence tools could advance biomaterials research and development ...

Barcelona Supercomputing Center releases OmpSs-2 version 2020.06 ...

Barcelona Supercomputing Center releases COMPSs version 2.7 ...

Ghent University engages Atos to build third Tier1 VSC supercomputer supporting research in Flanders ...

Dell Technologies high performance computing customers drive breakthroughs for global impact ...

Hardware

NCSA and Southern Methodist University announce new strategic partnership ...

TYAN brings the latest server advancements at its 2020 Server Solutions Online Exhibition ...

WekaIO awarded a patent for Flash Registry with Write Leveling ...

Western Digital's New NVMe SSDs and NVMe-oF solutions provide the foundation for next-generation, agile data infrastructures ...

CW-WDM MSA Group forms to drive new industry standard for optical laser sources ...

Battelle awarded contract to enable Arctic research ...

Applications

Project to calculate emissions reductions across Europe during the COVID-19 pandemic ...

Supercomputer simulations show how DNA prepares itself for repair ...

Georgia Tech engineers simulate solar cell work using supercomputers ...

A new way of designing global satellite missions ...

Process for 'two-faced' nanomaterials may aid energy, information tech ...

New transatlantic lab decodes the brain with AI ...

Ion conducting polymer crucial to improving neuromorphic devices ...

Scientists develop new tool to design better fusion devices ...

C3.ai Digital Transformation Institute announces COVID-19 awards ...

UCF Consortium announces OpenSNAPI project to develop an open, standard application programming interface for smart networking adapters ...

The Cloud

SDSC's Sherlock Cloud announces Skylab ...

Dell Technologies brings IT infrastructure and Cloud capabilities to Edge environments ...

New technique may enable all-optical data-centre networks ...

Schrödinger expands discovery efforts for COVID-19 Alliance with advanced molecular simulation leveraging high-powered parallel computing on Google Cloud ...

Nebulon emerges from stealth and announces Cloud-Defined Storage ...

Repertoire Immune Medicines receives funding from COVID-19 High Performance Computing Consortium ...

W3BCLOUD raises $20,5 million to roll out a network of data centres dedicated for the blockchain economy ...