Jet engines started out as complicated creatures ever since GE built the first one in the U.S. in 1941, and their design has gotten exponentially more intricate since.
Madhu Pai, an engineer in the Computational Combustion Lab at GE Global Research, is working on an elaborate part in the jet engine combustor called the fuel injector. "It delivers the lifeblood of a jet engine combustor", he stated.
Injectors atomize liquid jet fuel and spray it into the combustion chamber where it burns and generates energy for propulsion. "They are one of the most challenging parts to design and very expensive to produce", Madhu Pai stated. The next-generation LEAP jet engine is the world's first engine with 3D-printed injectors.
Madhu Pai has teamed up with researchers from Arizona State and Cornell universities to use Titan and Sierra to study what exactly happens inside a fuel injector. The time and processing power the engineers have at their disposal is equal to running 10,000 computer processors simultaneously for over 9 months. "The supercomputer gives us a microscopic view of the inside of the injector", Madhu Pai stated. "We can study the processes occurring in regions hidden behind the metal or where the fuel spray is too dense. This allows us to better understand the physics behind the design."
This is physics with practical implications. Madhu Pai said that small changes to fuel nozzle geometry could lead to significant changes in engine performance. "These high-fidelity computer simulations help us understand how air and fuel mix and burn, and eventually reduce the number of trials", Madhu Pai stated. "Ultimately, we want to build more powerful engines that consume less fuel and have lower emissions."
Madhu Pai's simulations could also yield new insights beyond jet engines and improve injectors used in locomotives, land-based gas turbines, and potentially find applications in health care. "This is just the beginning", he stated.