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Primeur weekly 2018-04-16

Focus

GO FAIR initiative to create implementation networks for stewardship of data ...

Quantum computing

Atos Quantum Learning Machine can now simulate real qubits ...

UCSB/Google researchers in quantum computing professor John Martinis' group outline their plan for quantum supremacy ...

New qubit now works without breaks ...

Prototype of most advanced quantum memory presented by two Kazan universities ...

The thermodynamics of computing ...

Focus on Europe

GÉANT confirms Erik Huizer as CEO ...

ISC launches Travel Grant Programme to enable students and young researchers to attend the conference ...

Student develops gaming technology for environmental and scientific research ...

Prof. Dr. Xiaoxiang Zhu wins the 2018 PRACE Ada Lovelace Award for HPC ...

Academia and industry collaborate to drive UK supercomputer adoption ...

Middleware

Queen Mary University of London HPC cluster performance increases several orders of magnitude, saving time and cost ...

Hardware

University of Texas hires next director of no. 1 ranked computational institute ...

James Ang joins Pacific Northwest National Laboratory as chief scientist for computing ...

Fujitsu commences sales of PRIMERGY x86 server aimed at data centre companies ...

Tohoku University deploys vSMP Foundation for "The Supercomputer System" ...

Chinese leading weather research institute selected Mellanox InfiniBand, replacing OmniPath in an existing data centre ...

Valleytronics discovery could extend limits of Moore's Law ...

Top HPC clusters and workstations for AI, ML developed by Nor-Tech ...

Demonstration of world record: 159 Tb/s transmission over 1,045 km with 3-mode fiber ...

Applications

Boston partners with Excelero and Pixit Media at NAB to demo joint solution for media workflows ...

Fujitsu launches "Heart Explorer" to study heart behaviour ...

U.S. Department of Energy supports doctoral research into on-site analysis of supercomputer simulations ...

Scientists use machine learning to speed discovery of metallic glass ...

Machine learning could help search for gravitational waves ...

Artificial Intelligence can now detect gravitational waves ...

Jon Bashor retires after 27 years of service to national labs ...

Research and software: perspectives from different communities ...

The background hum of space could reveal hidden black holes ...

How to catch a fish genome with Big Data ...

Translational research community debates on the EGA and its impact on health ...

The Cloud

Capitalizing on the opportunity of hybrid cloud in HPC ...

St. Jude Cloud launches for researchers worldwide ...

New qubit now works without breaks

Cryostat. Credit: NUST MISIS.13 Apr 2018 Moscow - An international group of scientists from Russia, the United Kingdom, and Germany have presented an alternative qubit design which can be used to build a quantum computer. Nano-wires made of superconductors are the design's main elements. In the first experiments, the new superconductor qubit proved to be no worse than the traditional one built on Josephson junctions.

The collaboration of scientists from the Russian Quantum Center and NUST MISIS in Russia, the University of London and the National Physical Laboratory in Teddington in the United Kingdom, and the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology and IPHT Jena in Germany, as well as contributions from MIPT and Skoltech in Russia, has managed to create a fundamentally new qubit based not on the Josephson transition, which has gaps in the superconductor, but on a continuous superconducting nano-wire. The research has been published in Nature Physics .

Scientists expect quantum computers to achieve landmarks. Although the universal quantum computer hasn't been created yet, scientists can already design chemical compounds and materials with the help of qubits. The calculation principle on its basis even allows researchers to solve complex problems today. That is why many scientific groups are working on improving quantum computer elements. Studying and improving qubits, which are the main computational cells of the quantum computer, are the most challenging part of that process.

There are several approaches to creating qubits. For example, there are qubits that work in optical range. However, they are difficult to scale, unlike qubits on superconductors operating in radio range and based on so-called Josephson transitions. Every such transition is a break in the superconductor, or to be more specific - a dielectric layer through which electrons tunnel.

The new qubit is based on the effect of quantum phase slip - the controlled periodic failure and recovery of superconductivity in ultra-thin (about 4 nm) nano-wires which in their normal state have fairly large resistance. Professor Oleg Astafiev, head of the Artifical Quantum Systems Laboratory at MIPT in Russia and a researcher at the University of London and the National Physical Laboratory in Teddington, the United Kingdom, was the first who experimentally observed this effect, which had previously been theorized. His pioneering work was published inNaturein 2012.

Professor Ustinov, one of researchers on the project, head of the RQC research group, head of the Laboratory of Superconducting Metamaterials at NUST MISIS, and Professor at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology in Germany, noted that researchers have managed to create a new type of superconducting device that in many ways is similar to SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device), a supersensitive magnetometer based on Josephson transitions.

The interference in the new device is caused by an electric field - instead of a magnetic field - that changes the electric charge on the island between the two nano-wires. These wires fill the role of Josephson junctions, and better yet, they do not require the creation of a break and can be made from a single layer of a superconductor.

According to Professor Ustinov, during the research, the international team managed to show that this system can work as a charging interferometer. "If we divide the wire into two sections and make a thickening in the centre, then by changing the charge of that thickening with the shutter, it is possible to make a periodic modulation in the process of quantum tunneling of magnetic quanta through the wire, which is actually observed in this work."

Proving that the effect is controllable and coherent is a key point, as well as the process being applicable to create a new generation of qubits.

SQUID-technologies have already found their application in several medical scanning devices such as magneto-cardiography and magneto-encephalography, as well as in devices catching nuclear magnetic resonance, and in geophysical and paleogeological methods of exploring Earth's surfaces. This is precisely why advanced SQUID charges can bring about serious changes not only in the world of quantum computers, but in society at-large.

Professor Ustinov said that scientists face a lot of fundamental tasks related to the studies of new qubits. However, it is obvious now that when we talk about qubits, their functionality is equal to, if not better than modern analogues, while being much easier to manufacture.

"The main intrigue is whether the whole set of elements of superconducting electronics can be built on this principle. The obtained device is an electric meter and measures the charge on the island of the superconductor with a margin of error thousands of times less than an electron charge. We can control it with the highest precision, as this charge is not quantized, but induced. My research group in Karlsruhe is now studying qubits on the principle of phase slippage, and the coherence times we get on them turn out to be surprisingly high."

"So far, they are not larger than in conventional qubits, but we have just started to work on the project, and there is a chance that they will be larger. For example, there is also another important issue of defects in qubits, on which we have recently been awarded a grant from Google, and these defects arise in the dielectric tunnel barrier of the Josephson transition. Defects appear due to the fact that there are large electric fields in this area, and all the voltage is on a scale of only 2 nm. If we imagine that the same fall occurs in a homogeneous wire, and we don't know exactly where in the homogeneous 'blur' it occurs throughout the superconductor, then the fields that arise here will be much smaller. This means that the defects which are in qubit materials, most likely, will not occur and that we will be able to get qubits with higher coherence time, which will help to cope with one of the main problems of qubits - not much time in their quantum life", Professor Ustinov proclaimed.

Source: National University of Science and Technology - MISIS

Back to Table of contents

Primeur weekly 2018-04-16

Focus

GO FAIR initiative to create implementation networks for stewardship of data ...

Quantum computing

Atos Quantum Learning Machine can now simulate real qubits ...

UCSB/Google researchers in quantum computing professor John Martinis' group outline their plan for quantum supremacy ...

New qubit now works without breaks ...

Prototype of most advanced quantum memory presented by two Kazan universities ...

The thermodynamics of computing ...

Focus on Europe

GÉANT confirms Erik Huizer as CEO ...

ISC launches Travel Grant Programme to enable students and young researchers to attend the conference ...

Student develops gaming technology for environmental and scientific research ...

Prof. Dr. Xiaoxiang Zhu wins the 2018 PRACE Ada Lovelace Award for HPC ...

Academia and industry collaborate to drive UK supercomputer adoption ...

Middleware

Queen Mary University of London HPC cluster performance increases several orders of magnitude, saving time and cost ...

Hardware

University of Texas hires next director of no. 1 ranked computational institute ...

James Ang joins Pacific Northwest National Laboratory as chief scientist for computing ...

Fujitsu commences sales of PRIMERGY x86 server aimed at data centre companies ...

Tohoku University deploys vSMP Foundation for "The Supercomputer System" ...

Chinese leading weather research institute selected Mellanox InfiniBand, replacing OmniPath in an existing data centre ...

Valleytronics discovery could extend limits of Moore's Law ...

Top HPC clusters and workstations for AI, ML developed by Nor-Tech ...

Demonstration of world record: 159 Tb/s transmission over 1,045 km with 3-mode fiber ...

Applications

Boston partners with Excelero and Pixit Media at NAB to demo joint solution for media workflows ...

Fujitsu launches "Heart Explorer" to study heart behaviour ...

U.S. Department of Energy supports doctoral research into on-site analysis of supercomputer simulations ...

Scientists use machine learning to speed discovery of metallic glass ...

Machine learning could help search for gravitational waves ...

Artificial Intelligence can now detect gravitational waves ...

Jon Bashor retires after 27 years of service to national labs ...

Research and software: perspectives from different communities ...

The background hum of space could reveal hidden black holes ...

How to catch a fish genome with Big Data ...

Translational research community debates on the EGA and its impact on health ...

The Cloud

Capitalizing on the opportunity of hybrid cloud in HPC ...

St. Jude Cloud launches for researchers worldwide ...