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Primeur weekly 2018-04-23

Special

Commissioner Mariya Gabriel sees a growing sense of community in EuroHPC exascale initiative ...

Focus

ETAIS and eInfraCentral: a national and a European approach for offering e-Infrastructure services ...

Exascale supercomputing

The Exascale Computing Project (ECP) appoints GE's Brunon (Dave) Kepczynski as Industry Council Chair ...

Quantum computing

Novel thermal phases of topological quantum matter in the lab ...

Focus on Europe

ISC STEM Student Day opens for sign-up, includes free HPC & Machine Learning tutorial ...

Key role for University of Bristol in new supercomputer collaboration ...

e-IRG Open Workshop to focus on EuroHPC and development of e-Infrastructures in South-Eastern European (SEE) and Eastern-Mediterranean (EM) region ...

The JUWELS supercomputer in Juelich ...

KTH Sweden to organize PDC Summer School - Introduction to High Performance Computing ...

Hardware

Memorandum of Understanding on future international collaboration projects ...

New direct link from South Africa enables global science ...

Integrating optical components into existing chip designs ...

Russian RSC Group deployed the world first 100% hot water liquid cooled supercomputer at Joint Institute for Nuclear Research ...

DDN Storage builds major new engineering facility in Colorado focused on solving AI, Cloud and large-scale enterprise data challenges ...

Cray debuts AMD EPYC processors in supercomputer product line ...

Fujitsu upgrades RIKEN's AI research computer RAIDEN; reaches top tier of processing performance in Japan ...

Fujitsu launches new GS21 mainframe models supporting next-generation mission-critical systems ...

Applications

EMBO Practical Course on Integrative modelling of biomolecular interactions at Barcelona Supercomputing Center ...

Your digital twin: closer than you think - How computer models can predict health and help to prevent and cure diseases ...

From insulator to conductor in a flash ...

Oregon scientists decipher the magma bodies under Yellowstone ...

Some superconductors can also carry currents of 'spin' ...

Improving citizen science and big data analysis ...

Diamond-like carbon is formed differently to what was believed - machine learning enables development of new model ...

AI projected to replace thousands of banking jobs ...

The Cloud

UTSA Open Cloud Institute supports Cloud research & launches certificate programme ...

Oregon scientists decipher the magma bodies under Yellowstone

Graphic by University of Oregon scientists provides new structural information, based on supercomputer modelling, about the location of a mid-crustal sill that separates magma under Yellowstone. Credit: Courtesy of Dylan Colon.16 Apr 2018 Eugene - Using supercomputer modeling, University of Oregon scientists have unveiled a new explanation for the geology underlying recent seismic imaging of magma bodies below Yellowstone National Park.

Yellowstone, a supervolcano famous for explosive eruptions, large calderas and extensive lava flows, has for years attracted the attention of scientists trying to understand the location and size of magma chambers below it. The last caldera forming eruption occurred 630,000 years ago; the last large volume of lava surfaced 70,000 years ago.

Crust below the park is heated and softened by continuous infusions of magma that rise from an anomaly called a mantle plume, similar to the source of the magma at Hawaii's Kilauea volcano. Huge amounts of water that fuel the dramatic geysers and hot springs at Yellowstone cool the crust and prevent it from becoming too hot.

With computer modelling, a team led by University of Oregon doctoral student Dylan P. Colón has shed light on what's going on below. At depths of 5-10 kilometers (3-6 miles) opposing forces counter each other, forming a transition zone where cold and rigid rocks of the upper crust give way to hot, ductile and even partially molten rock below, the team reports in a paper in Geophysical Research Letters .

This transition traps rising magmas and causes them to accumulate and solidify in a large horizontal body called a sill, which can be up to 15 kilometers (9 miles) thick, according to the team's computer modelling.

"The results of the modelling matches observations done by sending seismic waves through the area", stated co-author Ilya Bindeman, a professor in the University of Oregon's Department of Earth Sciences. "This work appears to validate initial assumptions and gives us more information about Yellowstone's magma locations."

This mid-crustal sill is comprised of mostly solidified gabbro, a rock formed from cooled magma. Above and below lay separate magma bodies. The upper one contains the sticky and gas-rich rhyolitic magma that occasionally erupts in explosions that dwarf the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens in Washington state.

Similar structures may exist under super volcanoes around the world, Dylan P. Colón said. The geometry of the sill also may explain differing chemical signatures in eruptive materials, he said.

Dylan P. Colón's project to model what's below the nation's first national park, which was sculpted 2 million years ago by volcanic activity, began soon after a 2014 paper inGeophysical Research Lettersby a University of Utah-led team revealed evidence from seismic waves of a large magma body in the upper crust.

Scientists had suspected, however, that huge amounts of carbon dioxide and helium escaping from the ground indicated that more magma is located farther down. That mystery was solved in May 2015, when a second University of Utah-led study, published in the journalScience, identified by way of seismic waves a second, larger body of magma at depths of 20 to 45 kilometers (12-27 miles).

However, Dylan P. Colón said, the seismic-imaging studies could not identify the composition, state and amount of magma in these magma bodies, or how and why they formed there.

To understand the two structures, University of Oregon researchers wrote new codes for supercomputer modelling to understand where magma is likely to accumulate in the crust. The work was done in collaboration with researchers at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, also known as ETH Zurich.

The researchers repeatedly got results indicating a large layer of cooled magma with a high melting point forms at the mid-crustal sill, separating two magma bodies with magma at a lower melting point, much of which is derived from melting of the crust.

"We think that this structure is what causes the rhyolite-basalt volcanism throughout the Yellowstone hotspot, including supervolcanic eruptions", Ilya Bindeman stated. "This is the nursery, a geological and petrological match with eruptive products. Our modelling helps to identify the geologic structure of where the rhyolitic material is located."

The new research, for now, does not help to predict the timing of future eruptions. Instead, it provides a never-before-seen look that helps explain the structure of the magmatic plumbing system that fuels these eruptions, Dylan P. Colón said. It shows where the eruptible magma originates and accumulates, which could help with prediction efforts further down the line.

"This research also helps to explain some of the chemical signatures that are seen in eruptive materials", Dylan P. Colón stated. "We can also use it to explore how hot the mantle plume is by comparing models of different plumes to the actual situation at Yellowstone that we understand from the geologic record."

Dylan P. Colón is now exploring what influences the chemical composition of magmas that erupt at volcanoes like Yellowstone.

Studying the interaction of rising magmas with the crustal transition zone, and how this influences the properties of the magma bodies that form both above and below it, the scientists wrote, should boost scientific understanding of how mantle plumes influence the evolution and structure of continental crust.

A third co-author on the paper was Taras V. Gerya, a professor in the Department of Earth Sciences at ETH Zurich.

The National Science Foundation funded the work through a grant to Ilya Bindeman. Dylan P. Colón also received support from the Jay M. McMurray Fund, which provides summer research and travel funding, in the University of Oregon Department of Earth Sciences.

Source: University of Oregon

Back to Table of contents

Primeur weekly 2018-04-23

Special

Commissioner Mariya Gabriel sees a growing sense of community in EuroHPC exascale initiative ...

Focus

ETAIS and eInfraCentral: a national and a European approach for offering e-Infrastructure services ...

Exascale supercomputing

The Exascale Computing Project (ECP) appoints GE's Brunon (Dave) Kepczynski as Industry Council Chair ...

Quantum computing

Novel thermal phases of topological quantum matter in the lab ...

Focus on Europe

ISC STEM Student Day opens for sign-up, includes free HPC & Machine Learning tutorial ...

Key role for University of Bristol in new supercomputer collaboration ...

e-IRG Open Workshop to focus on EuroHPC and development of e-Infrastructures in South-Eastern European (SEE) and Eastern-Mediterranean (EM) region ...

The JUWELS supercomputer in Juelich ...

KTH Sweden to organize PDC Summer School - Introduction to High Performance Computing ...

Hardware

Memorandum of Understanding on future international collaboration projects ...

New direct link from South Africa enables global science ...

Integrating optical components into existing chip designs ...

Russian RSC Group deployed the world first 100% hot water liquid cooled supercomputer at Joint Institute for Nuclear Research ...

DDN Storage builds major new engineering facility in Colorado focused on solving AI, Cloud and large-scale enterprise data challenges ...

Cray debuts AMD EPYC processors in supercomputer product line ...

Fujitsu upgrades RIKEN's AI research computer RAIDEN; reaches top tier of processing performance in Japan ...

Fujitsu launches new GS21 mainframe models supporting next-generation mission-critical systems ...

Applications

EMBO Practical Course on Integrative modelling of biomolecular interactions at Barcelona Supercomputing Center ...

Your digital twin: closer than you think - How computer models can predict health and help to prevent and cure diseases ...

From insulator to conductor in a flash ...

Oregon scientists decipher the magma bodies under Yellowstone ...

Some superconductors can also carry currents of 'spin' ...

Improving citizen science and big data analysis ...

Diamond-like carbon is formed differently to what was believed - machine learning enables development of new model ...

AI projected to replace thousands of banking jobs ...

The Cloud

UTSA Open Cloud Institute supports Cloud research & launches certificate programme ...