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Primeur weekly 2015-02-09

The Cloud

Kallo selects IBM Cloud technology to help transform health care in remote communities ...

Introducing VMware vSphere 6 - The Foundation for hybrid Cloud ...

VMware announces general availability of VMware vCloud government service ...

Desktop Grids

NVIDIA and VMware to deliver new rich graphics capabilities for desktop virtualization ...

BOINC to welcome Citizen Science Grid and Gerasim@Home and migrating to GitHub ...

EuroFlash

Submission period ending soon for ISC High Performance 2015 ...

ISC Events teams up with Deutsche Messe to introduce cluster computing at CeBIT ...

Imperial College London uses new Half PB storage to support research and e-learning ...

MonetDB Solutions and Numascale team up to enter the in-memory Big Data analytics market ...

Call of Participation for the HPC Advisory Council Switzerland Conference 2015 ...

Optalysys launches Series A funding round ...

Altair Engineering announces 9th UK Technology Conference to be held on the 16th June, 2015 in Stratford-Upon-Avon, Warwickshire ...

Kramer to release new Matrix Switcher/Multi-Scaler at ISE 2015 ...

Supercomputing reveals the genetic code of cancer ...

Physicists observe motion of skyrmions ...

PRACEdays15 packed with excellence ...

Fourteenth edition of PRACE Newsletter now available ...

Safe production in Industry 4.0 ...

Turing also present at the nanoscale ...

Public participation should be at the heart of Big Data projects ...

1.3 million euro to develop computational microscope ...

USFlash

Supermicro expands its range of low-latency server and storage solutions featuring hot-swap NVMe technology ...

Building supercomputer capability in an unlikely place ...

SDSC to participate in new Cancer Cell Mapping Initiative ...

SDSC announces International Chemistry Collaboration ...

Video games help doctors diagnose sudden cardiac arrest ...

How whales hear: 3D computer simulations of baleen whale's head point to skull vibrations ...

NASA supercomputer assists the hunt for exomoons ...

Pleiades supercomputer performance leaps to 5.35 Petaflops with latest expansion ...

Milwaukee Institute partners with the National Center for Supercomputing Applications ...

Turing also present at the nanoscale


IPC PAS
5 Feb 2015 Warsaw - In the world of single atoms and molecules governed by chaotic fluctuations, is the spontaneous formation of Turing patterns possible - the same ones that are responsible for the irregular yet periodic shapes of the stripes on zebras' bodies? A Polish-Danish team of physicists has for the first time demonstrated that such a process can not only occur, but can also be used for potentially very interesting applications.

Everyone is familiar with a zebra's stripes, but not everyone knows that these are the manifestations of chemical reactions taking place according to a process first described by the famous British mathematician Alan Turing, the creator of the basics of today's computer science. Turing patterns, most commonly displayed in chemistry as periodic changes in the concentration of chemical substances, have hitherto only been observed in dimensions of microns or larger. It seemed that on a smaller scale - at the nanoscale, where random fluctuations rule the movement of single atoms and molecules - these patterns do not have the right to form spontaneously.

"So far, no-one has even studied the possibility of the formation of Turing patterns by single atoms or molecules. However, our results show that Turing nanostructures may exist. And since this is the case, we will be able to find very specific applications for them in nanotechnology and materials science", stated Dr. Bogdan Nowakowski from the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences (IPC PAS) in Warsaw, one of the physicists in the Polish-Danish team that has recently conducted computer simulations and theoretical analyses on Turing nanostructures.

Turing patterns occur in dynamic systems far from a state of equilibrium. Under the appropriate conditions there may then be a feedback mechanism: chemical reactions taking place may influence the concentration of their own components, which in turn may change the course of the reaction itself. The process leads to the formation of periodic, but not necessarily monotonously regular patterns. In nature, these patterns play an important role, particularly in the formation of young organisms (morphogenesis). For example, in the initial phases of the development of vertebrate embryos, this is how periodic segments, somites, are formed in the dorsal mesoderm, which are later converted into, among others, vertebrae, components of the spine.

"In our studies we considered very simple reactions of two model substances with different rates of diffusion. Computer simulations carried out using molecular dynamics, in collaboration with Dr. Jesper Hansen from the Danish University of Roskilde, gave rise to a very interesting picture", stated Dr. Piotr Dziekan (IPC PAS).

Clear and permanent patterns formed spontaneously in the simulated systems (of nanometer dimensions) - periodic changes in the density of molecules, which remained stable despite the destructive influence of fluctuations. It turned out that one cycle of concentration changes within the Turing pattern could appear on a length of just 20 molecules.

For Turing nanostructures to be formed, chemical reactions satisfying certain conditions have to take place between the chemical substances. This requirement severely reduces the number of compounds that can participate in the process and, consequently, severely limits the potential applications. However, the simulations carried out by the Polish-Danish team suggest that Turing nanostructures can quite easily be transferred to other compounds, not participating directly in the main reaction.

"Turing nanostructures can only arise with carefully selected chemical substances. Fortunately, the pattern formed by them can be 'imprinted' in the concentration of other chemical compounds. For the pattern to be copied, these compounds must fulfill only two simple conditions: they must bind to one of the reactants of the main reaction and diffuse slowly", explained Dr. Dziekan.

The possibility of forming Turing patterns on nanometer distances opens the door to interesting applications, particularly in the field of surface modification of materials. By skillfully selecting the chemical composition of the reagents and the conditions in which the reaction occurs, it could be possible to form Turing patterns in two dimensions (on the same surface of the material), or three (also in the space adjacent to the surface). The formed patterns could then be fixed, e.g. by photopolymerisation, thereby obtaining a permanent, stable, extended surface with a complex, periodic structure.

The research on Turing nanostructures was funded by the International PhD Projects of the Foundation for Polish Science programme.
Source: Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences

Back to Table of contents

Primeur weekly 2015-02-09

The Cloud

Kallo selects IBM Cloud technology to help transform health care in remote communities ...

Introducing VMware vSphere 6 - The Foundation for hybrid Cloud ...

VMware announces general availability of VMware vCloud government service ...

Desktop Grids

NVIDIA and VMware to deliver new rich graphics capabilities for desktop virtualization ...

BOINC to welcome Citizen Science Grid and Gerasim@Home and migrating to GitHub ...

EuroFlash

Submission period ending soon for ISC High Performance 2015 ...

ISC Events teams up with Deutsche Messe to introduce cluster computing at CeBIT ...

Imperial College London uses new Half PB storage to support research and e-learning ...

MonetDB Solutions and Numascale team up to enter the in-memory Big Data analytics market ...

Call of Participation for the HPC Advisory Council Switzerland Conference 2015 ...

Optalysys launches Series A funding round ...

Altair Engineering announces 9th UK Technology Conference to be held on the 16th June, 2015 in Stratford-Upon-Avon, Warwickshire ...

Kramer to release new Matrix Switcher/Multi-Scaler at ISE 2015 ...

Supercomputing reveals the genetic code of cancer ...

Physicists observe motion of skyrmions ...

PRACEdays15 packed with excellence ...

Fourteenth edition of PRACE Newsletter now available ...

Safe production in Industry 4.0 ...

Turing also present at the nanoscale ...

Public participation should be at the heart of Big Data projects ...

1.3 million euro to develop computational microscope ...

USFlash

Supermicro expands its range of low-latency server and storage solutions featuring hot-swap NVMe technology ...

Building supercomputer capability in an unlikely place ...

SDSC to participate in new Cancer Cell Mapping Initiative ...

SDSC announces International Chemistry Collaboration ...

Video games help doctors diagnose sudden cardiac arrest ...

How whales hear: 3D computer simulations of baleen whale's head point to skull vibrations ...

NASA supercomputer assists the hunt for exomoons ...

Pleiades supercomputer performance leaps to 5.35 Petaflops with latest expansion ...

Milwaukee Institute partners with the National Center for Supercomputing Applications ...