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Primeur weekly 2012-01-02

The Cloud

Hong Kong's Quality HealthCare adopt IBM Cloud and Analytics ...

Improving security in the Cloud ...

EuroFlash

T-Platforms to build 10 PetaFlops supercomputer ...

Award-winning Maximum Performance Computing (MPC) powers trading systems at J.P. Morgan ...

USFlash

Bright Computing and China HPC Technologies power astronomical research at China's Purple Mountain Observatory ...

Bright Computing Selected for HPC cluster at Texas A&M University ...

40-year-old puzzle of superstring theory solved by supercomputer ...

Virginia Tech's Wu Feng unveils HokieSpeed, a new powerful supercomputer for the masses ...

Lawrence Livermore receives $1.75 million to integrate more renewable sources into California's energy grid ...

A new kind of metal in the deep Earth ...

Compact personal supercomputer provides powerful GPU computing in a small package ...

Tokyo Institute of Technology wins Gordon Bell Prize with NVIDIA GPU-accelerated supercomputer ...

New device could bring optical information processing ...

Asiana Airlines improves business efficiency with Oracle Exadata Database Machine ...

Digicel Haiti implements Oracle Exadata Database Machine to help meet business objectives ...

Iowa Network Services improves services uptime and reduces data centre operational costs with Oracle Solaris ...

BNP Paribas CIB speeds information processing with Oracle Exadata Database Machine ...

Quantum computing has applications in magnetic imaging, according to Pitt researchers ...

Better turbine simulation software to yield better engines ...

Optical fiber innovation could make future optical computers a SNAP ...

40-year-old puzzle of superstring theory solved by supercomputer

22 Dec 2011 Tsukuba - A group of three researchers from the Japanese High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Shizuoka University and Osaka University has for the first time revealed the way our universe was born with 3 spatial dimensions from 10-dimensional superstring theory in which spacetime has 9 spatial directions and 1 temporal direction. This result was obtained by numerical simulation on a supercomputer.

According to Big Bang cosmology, the universe originated in an explosion from an invisibly tiny point. This theory is strongly supported by observation of the cosmic microwave background and the relative abundance of elements. However, a situation in which the whole universe is a tiny point exceeds the reach of Einstein's general theory of relativity, and for that reason it has not been possible to clarify how the universe actually originated.

In superstring theory, which is considered to be the "theory of everything", all the elementary particles are represented as various oscillation modes of very tiny strings. Among those oscillation modes, there is one that corresponds to a particle that mediates gravity, and thus the general theory of relativity can be naturally extended to the scale of elementary particles. Therefore, it is expected that superstring theory allows the investigation of the birth of the universe. However, actual calculation has been intractable because the interaction between strings is strong, so all investigation thus far has been restricted to discussing various models or scenarios.

Superstring theory predicts a space with 9 dimensions, which poses the big puzzle of how this can be consistent with the 3-dimensional space that we live in.

A group of 3 researchers, Jun Nishimura, associate professor at KEK, Asato Tsuchiya, associate professor at Shizuoka University, and Sang-Woo Kim, project researcher at Osaka University, has succeeded in simulating the birth of the universe, using a supercomputer for calculations based on superstring theory. This showed that the universe had 9 spatial dimensions at the beginning, but only 3 of these underwent expansion at some point in time.

This work will be published soon inPhysical Review Letters.

In the study, the team established a method for calculating large matrices (in the IKKT matrix model), which represent the interactions of strings, and calculated how the 9-dimensional space changes with time. In the model, the spatial extents in 9 directions are plotted against time.

If one goes far enough back in time, space is indeed extended in 9 directions, but then at some point only 3 of those directions start to expand rapidly. This result demonstrates, for the first time, that the 3-dimensional space that we are living in indeed emerges from the 9-dimensional space that superstring theory predicts.

This calculation was carried out on the supercomputer Hitachi SR16000 (theoretical performance: 90.3 TFLOPS) at the Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics of Kyoto University.

It is almost 40 years since superstring theory was proposed as the theory of everything, extending the general theory of relativity to the scale of elementary particles. However, its validity and its usefulness remained unclear due to the difficulty of performing actual calculations. The newly obtained solution to the space-time dimensionality puzzle strongly supports the validity of the theory.

Furthermore, the establishment of a new method to analyze superstring theory using computers opens up the possibility of applying this theory to various problems. For instance, it should now be possible to provide a theoretical understanding of the inflation that is believed to have taken place in the early universe, and also the accelerating expansion of the universe, whose discovery earned the Nobel Prize in Physics this year. It is expected that superstring theory will develop further and play an important role in solving such puzzles in particle physics as the existence of the dark matter that is suggested by cosmological observations, and the Higgs particle, which is expected to be discovered by LHC experiments.
Source: High Energy Accelerator Research Organization - KEK

Back to Table of contents

Primeur weekly 2012-01-02

The Cloud

Hong Kong's Quality HealthCare adopt IBM Cloud and Analytics ...

Improving security in the Cloud ...

EuroFlash

T-Platforms to build 10 PetaFlops supercomputer ...

Award-winning Maximum Performance Computing (MPC) powers trading systems at J.P. Morgan ...

USFlash

Bright Computing and China HPC Technologies power astronomical research at China's Purple Mountain Observatory ...

Bright Computing Selected for HPC cluster at Texas A&M University ...

40-year-old puzzle of superstring theory solved by supercomputer ...

Virginia Tech's Wu Feng unveils HokieSpeed, a new powerful supercomputer for the masses ...

Lawrence Livermore receives $1.75 million to integrate more renewable sources into California's energy grid ...

A new kind of metal in the deep Earth ...

Compact personal supercomputer provides powerful GPU computing in a small package ...

Tokyo Institute of Technology wins Gordon Bell Prize with NVIDIA GPU-accelerated supercomputer ...

New device could bring optical information processing ...

Asiana Airlines improves business efficiency with Oracle Exadata Database Machine ...

Digicel Haiti implements Oracle Exadata Database Machine to help meet business objectives ...

Iowa Network Services improves services uptime and reduces data centre operational costs with Oracle Solaris ...

BNP Paribas CIB speeds information processing with Oracle Exadata Database Machine ...

Quantum computing has applications in magnetic imaging, according to Pitt researchers ...

Better turbine simulation software to yield better engines ...

Optical fiber innovation could make future optical computers a SNAP ...